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Southeast Asia Mollusca

Southeast Asia Mollusca Identification page is created to make identification of common species found in South East Asia easy. The list below are the molluscs found in Malaysia. The list also include name in languages and dialect used in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia.

Species Group: Freshwater Molluscs (ISSCAAP 51)

Common Name: Marsh Clam, Mangrove Clam, Broad Geloina
Scientific Name: Polymesoda expansa  Mousson, 1849
Family: Cyrenidae, Corbiculidae
Mandarin Name: China - 歪红树蚬 (Wāi hóng shù xiǎn)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยกัน (H̄oy kạn)
Local Malay Name: Lokan
Remarks: All other Malaysia and Indonesia local language also call it Lokan

Species Group: Abalones, Winkles, Conchs (ISSCAAP 52)

Common Name: Spiral Melongena, Melon Conch
Scientific Name: Volegalea cochlidium  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Melongenidae
Mandarin Name: 棕香螺 (Zōng xiāng luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Unam
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยสังข์ปุ่มเกลียวเวียน (H̄oy s̄ạngk̄h̒ pùm kelīyw weīyn)
Main Identification Features: Shell relatively large (up to 15 cm long), solid and heavy, broadly fusiform in outline. Spire conical and tall, with angulate shoulders and incised sultures. Suture not spinose. Outer lip of aperture angulate at shoulder. Siphonal canal moderately long.
Habitat and Ecology: Inhabits intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, in muddy areas, often in brackish waters, near estuaries and mangroves. Feeds on barnacles and bivalves.

Common Name: Rarespined Murex
Scientific Name: Murex trapa  Röding, 1798
Family: Muricidae
Mandarin Name: 宝岛骨螺 (Bǎo dǎo gǔ luó), 刺螺 (Cì luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Duri, Siput Gasi
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยสังข์หนามเล็ก (H̄oy s̄ạngk̄h̒ h̄nām lĕk)
Local Hokkien: Chi Lay

Common Name: Chameleon Nerite, Textile Nerite
Scientific Name: Nerita chamaeleon  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Neritidae
Mandarin Name: 大圆蜑螺 (Dàyuán dànluó), 矮狮蜑螺 (Ǎishī dànluó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Timba Batik, Tekuyung Timba Batik, Sihik
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยน้าพริก (H̄oyn̂ả phrik)
Main Identification Features: Shell thick, globose, with a low spire. Outer surface with numerous, moderately rough spiral cords. Semi-circular calcified operculum. Variable in outer colour pattern. Often misidentified as Nerita histrio. N. chamaeleon have higher spire, smoother ribs, more-distinct teeth in the outer lip and the consistently smoother and more regularly rounded outline of the peristome.
Habitat and Ecology: Inhabits intertidal rocky shores, intertidal flats and sandy substrates. Herbivorous, feeding mainly on algae.

Common Name: Scaly Nerite Snail
Scientific Name: Nerita histrio  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Neritidae
Mandarin Name: 花圆蜑螺 (Huā yuán dànluó), 圆蜑螺 (Yuán dànluó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Timba, Tekuyung Timba, Sihik
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยน้ำ (H̄oyn̂ả)
Main Identification Features: Shell texture rough with unevenly raised spiral ribs. Spire low to nearly flat. Underside smooth. Outer lip dentate and without distinct tooth. Operculum flesh-coloured, granulate and not flat. Shell colour and markings are variable.
Habitat and Ecology: Found on rocks, structure, mangrove tree trunks and roots in mangrove swamp, and rocky, muddy or sandy beaches.

Common Name: Planaxis Snail, Tropical Periwinkle, Furrowed Clusterwink, False Winkle
Scientific Name: Planaxis sulcatus  (Born, 1778)
Family: Planaxidae
Mandarin Name: 芝麻螺 (Zhīma luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Laut
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเปลือกหนาธรรมดา (H̄oy pelụ̄xk h̄nā ṭhrrmdā)
Main Identification Features: Shell conic-ovate, greenish brown-black with white spotted patterns. Anterior siphonal canal of the aperture distinct. Inner lip and lining the ovate aperture dark purple. Head and foot is yellowish-green with black horizontal stripes. Foot short and the sole is white to dirty white in colour.
Habitat and Ecology: Commonly found in the rocky upper and middle zones of intertidal environments throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Herbivorous, feeding primarily on microalgae.

Common Name: Girdled Horn Snail
Scientific Name: Cerithidea cingulata  (Gmelin, 1791)
Family: Potamididae
Mandarin Name: 栓海蜷 (Shuān hǎi quán), 珠带拟蟹守螺 (Zhū dài nǐ xiè shǒu luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Laut, Keong Tanduk Hitam (Indonesia)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเจดีย์ (H̄oy cedi)
Main Identification Features: Shell elongate and thick. Whorls separated by shallow sutures. Sculpture composed of spiral ridges interspersed by strong axial ribs. Aperture ovate. Columella straight. Outer lip thick and expanded broadly. Anterior siphonal canal demarcated by a deep notch. Overall dark brown with a whitish band above the suture.
Size: Maximum shell length 4.5 cm, commonly to 3.5 cm.
Habitat and Ecology: Abundant on mud flats near mangroves and in brackish water. Usually found in the upper bottom layer of mud which is almost liquid. Obligate deposit feeder, feeds on macroalgae, bacteria and diatoms.

Common Name: Red Chut-chut Snail, Red Eye Snail. Obtuse Horn Shell, Mud Creeper
Scientific Name: Cerithidea obtusa  (Lamarck, 1822)
Family: Potamididae
Mandarin Name: 吸螺 (Xī luó), 午夜香吻 (Wǔyè xiāng wěn), 斑海蜷 (Bān hǎi quán)
Local Malay Name: Siput Sedut, Siput Mata Merah, Belitong, Keong Matah Merah (Indonesia)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยจุ๊บแจง (H̄oy cúbcæng)
Local Hokkien: Balitong, Chut-chut
Main Identification Features: Shell opening wide usually with a thick flaring lip. Red markings on body and foot. Other similar species are Cerithidea quadrata (Black chut-chut) and Terebralia sulcata (Supposedly the real Belitong). Cerithidea quadrata have more elongated shell, thin lip, and without red markings on body and around foot. Terebralia sulcata have a distinctive shell opening at the tip called the peristome and a more conical shell.
Size: Maximum shell length 5.0 cm, width 2.7 cm.
Habitat and Ecology: Found generally at the root and branches of mangrove trees, above the substrate, or on the mudbank in the tidal area.

Common Name: Dog Conch, Yellow Conch, Pearl Conch
Scientific Name: Strombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Strombidae
Mandarin Name: 贡贡 (Gòng gòng), 水晶凤凰螺 (Shuǐ jīng fèng huáng luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Gong-gong, Siput Tarik
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยชักตีน (H̄oy chạk tīn)
Local Hokkien: Gong Gong

Common Name: Toothed Top Shell Snail, Lipped Periwinkle
Scientific Name: Monodonta labio  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Trochidae
Mandarin Name: 单齿螺 (Dān chǐ luó), 草席钟螺 (Cǎo xí zhōng luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Timba
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยนมสาว (H̄oy nong s̄āw), หอยก้นแหลม (H̄xy kun h̄ælm)
Main Identification Features: Shell thick heavy, an asymmetrical cone with spirals of rounded bumps. Umbilicus sealed with a callus. Colour usually grey or greenish grey. A tooth in its shell opening. Inner edge of the outer lip shows a number of smaller knobs. Foot fringed with long tentacles.
Habitat and Ecology: Found on or under rocks and coral in the lower intertidal zone. A herbivorous snail, grazing on microalgae.

Common Name: Maculated Top, Spotted Top Shell Snail
Scientific Name: Trochus maculatus  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Trochidae
Mandarin Name: 花斑钟螺 (Huā bān zhōng luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Tudung Saji, Olak
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยนมสาว (H̄oy nong s̄āw)
Main Identification Features: Base of shell flat, with many low and finely beaded spiral threads. Umbilicus is present, spirally corded. Columella with 4 to 5 low spiral cords, giving its margin a multi-dentate aspect.
Habitat and Ecology: Found on or in crevices of rocks and coral in the intertidal zone to a depth of about 10 m. Feeds on macrophytes, algae and benthic diatoms.

Common Name: Duplicate Turret, Duplicate Screw Shell
Scientific Name: Turritella duplicata  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Turritellidae
Mandarin Name: 佛塔锥螺 (Fó tǎ zhuī luó), 长螺 (Cháng luó)
Local Malay Name: Siput Kon, Siput Skru, Siput Germit, Tuntul
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเจดีย์ (H̄oy cedi), หอยมวนพลู (H̄oy mun phlūū)
Local Hokkien: Teng Lo
Main Identification Features: Shell elongate, sharply conical, with numerous whorls and rounded aperture. Sides of the whorls sharply keeled. Siphonal canal absent.

Common Name: Noble Volute
Scientific Name: Cymbiola nobilis  (Lightfoot, 1786)
Family: Volutidae
Local Malay Name: Siput Batik
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยจุกพราหมณ์ (H̄oy cukphrāh̄m)
Main Identification Features: Thick heavy shell, with orange, yellow, beige or black background, and with red or brown zig-zag patterns. Spire conical and prominent. Fleshy body of the snail is black with bright yellow or orange spots.

Species Group: Oysters (ISSCAAP 53)

Common Name: White Hammer Oyster
Scientific Name: Malleus albus  Lamarck, 1819
Family: Malleidae
Mandarin Name: 白丁蛎 (Bái dīng lì), 槌头蚝 (Chuí tóu háo)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยขวำน (H̄oy k̄hwản)

Common Name: Tropical Oyster, Mangrove Oyster, Cupped Oyster
Scientific Name: Crassostrea belcheri  (G. B. Sowerby II, 1871)
Family: Ostreidae
Local Malay Name: Tiram Kapak, Tiram Tropika
Mandarin Name: 蚝 (Háo), 牡蛎 (Mǔ lì)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยตะโกรมกรามขาว (H̄oy takorm krām k̄hāw)
Main Identification Features: Shells large and thick with smooth and white internal surfaces; with concentric growth rings but without noticeable ribs. Right (upper) valve flat and smaller than left (lower) valve. Left (lower) valves are thicker convex beneath the hinge area. Adductor muscle scar white, half-moon shaped, dorsally placed. Inner mantle slightly brownish. Mantle fold black.
Habitat and Ecology: Found in the intertidal zone, usually attached to the aerial roots of mangroves.

Species Group: Mussels (ISSCAAP 54)

Common Name: Asian Brown Mussel, Green Mussel
Scientific Name: Perna viridis  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Mytilidae
Mandarin Name: 翡翠贻贝 (Fěicuì yí bèi), 绿壳菜蛤 (Lǜ qiào cài há), 青口贝 (Qīng kǒu bèi)
Local Malay Name: Siput Sudu, Kupang
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยแมลงภู่ (H̄oy mælangp̣hū̀)

Species Group: Scallops, Pectens (ISSCAAP 55)

Common Name: Asian Moon Scallop
Scientific Name: Amusium pleuronectes  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Pectinidae
Mandarin Name: 扇贝 (Shànbèi), 元贝 (Yuán bèi), 干贝 (Gānbèi), 江珧柱 (Jiāngyáozhù), 带子 (Dàizi), 亚洲日月蛤 (Yàzhōu rì yuè há), 明目鱼 (Míng mù yú)
Local Malay Name: Siput Piring, Kekapis, Kapis
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเชลล์ (H̄oy chell), หอยพัด (H̄oy phạd)
Local Hokkien: Kang Gia Chu

Common Name: Flag Pen Shell, Indo-Pacific Pen Shell
Scientific Name: Atrina vexillum  (Born, 1778)
Family: Pinnidae
Mandarin Name: 黑旗江珧蛤 (Hēi qí jiāng yáo há), 海鸟 (Hǎi niǎo)
Local Malay Name: Siput Kemudi, Siput Kipas, Siput Beliung, Siput Baji, Peha Ayam
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยจอบ (H̄oy cob), หอยซองพลู (H̄oy song phlū)
Local Hokkien: Hai Chiau
Main Identification Features: Shell truncate at the outer margin, thick and solid. Shell semitranslucent, dark reddish brown to nearly black in colour.

Common Name: Bicolor Pen Shell, Bicolor Fan Clam, Two-coloured Fan Shell
Scientific Name: Pinna bicolor  Gmelin, 1791
Family: Pinnidae
Mandarin Name: 紫色裂江珧 (Zǐsè liè jiāng yáo), 双色江珧蛤 (Shuāngsè jiāng yáo há), 海鸟 (Hǎi niǎo)
Local Malay Name: Siput Kemudi, Siput Kipas, Siput Beliung, Siput Baji, Panggang Pulut, Peha Ayam
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยจอบ (H̄oy cob), หอยซองพลู (H̄oy song phlū)
Local Hokkien: Hai Chiau
Main Identification Features: Shell thin, inflected at the lateral margin. Translucent, yellowish and light horn to dark brownish purple in colour.

Common Name: Pen Shell, Fan Mussel
Scientific Name: Pinna incurva  Gmelin, 1791
Family: Pinnidae
Mandarin Name: 细长裂江珧 (Xì cháng liè jiāng yáo), 海鸟 (Hǎi niǎo)
Local Malay Name: Siput Kemudi, Siput Kipas, Siput Beliung, Siput Baji, Peha Ayam
Local Hokkien: Hai Chiau
Main Identification Features: Shell narrow, long, with keel-like ridge, with transverse undulate wrinkles. Colour of the shell light reddish brown to yellowish-horn.

Species Group: Clams, Cockles, Arkshells (ISSCAAP 56)

Common Name: Blood Cockle, Granular Ark
Scientific Name: Anadara granosa  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Arcidae
Mandarin Name: 血蚶 (Xuè hān), 蛳蚶 (Sī hān)
Local Malay Name: Kerang
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยแครง (H̄oy khræng)
Local Cantonese: Si Haam
Local Hokkien: Haam

Common Name: Surf Clam, Bean Clam, Wedge Clam, Cuneate Donax Clam
Scientific Name: Donax cuneatus  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Donacidae
Mandarin Name: 楔形斧蛤 (Xiēxíng fǔ gé)
Local Malay Name: Siput Remis
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเสียบ (H̄oy s̄eīyb)
Local Hokkien/Teochew Name: Siput

Common Name: Green Glauconomya
Scientific Name: Glauconome virens  (Linnaeus, 1767)
Family: Glauconomidae
Mandarin Name: 哆头蛏 (Duō tóu chēng), 绿昙蛤 (Lǜ tán há), 滩 (Tān)
Local Malay Name: Siput Biji Nangka, Siput Cangkul, Kijing (Indonesia)
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยเม็ดขนุน (H̄oy mĕd k̄hnun), หอยกาบน้ำเค็ม (H̄oy kāb n̂ảkhĕm)
Local Hokkien: Than, Tua-tao

Common Name: Javanese Razor Clam
Scientific Name: Pharella javanica  (Lamarck, 1818)
Family: Pharidae
Mandarin Name: 灯塔蛤 (Dēngtǎ há), 蛏 (Chēng), 指甲滩 (Zhǐjiǎ tān), 花滩 (Huā tān)
Local Malay Name: Kerang Jubing (Indonesia), Siput Pahat (Malaysia)

Common Name: Chinese Venus Clam
Scientific Name: Callista chinensis  Holten, 1802
Family: Veneridae
Mandarin Name: 中华长文蛤 (Zhōnghuá zhǎngwén gé), 中国仙女蛤 (Zhōngguó xiānnǚ há)
Local Malay Name: Siput Gayam, Kapah Nangka

Common Name: Asiatic Hard Clam
Scientific Name: Meretrix meretrix  (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Veneridae
Mandarin Name: 文蛤 (Wén há), 甲巴 (Jiǎ bā)
Local Malay Name: Kunau, Kepah, Dalus
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยตลับ (H̄oy telạb)
Local Hokkien: Kapah

Common Name: Textile Venus, Carpet Clam
Scientific Name: Paphia textile  (Gmelin, 1791), Paratapes textilis  (Gmelin, 1791)
Family: Veneridae
Mandarin Name: Taiwan - 织纹横帘蛤 (Zhī wén héng lián há), China - 织锦巴非蛤 (Zhījǐn bā fēi há), 啦啦 (Lā lā), 花蛤 (Huā há)
Local Malay Name: Siput Lala, Retak Seribu
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หอยลาย (H̄oy lāy)
Remarks: All Malaysia and Indonesia local dialect call it Lala.

Species Group: Squids, Cuttlefishes, Octopuses, etc (ISSCAAP 57)

Common Name: Bigfin Reef Squid
Scientific Name: Sepioteuthis lessoniana  d'Orbigny, 1826
Family: Loliginidae
Mandarin Name: 为椭圆形鱿鱼 (Wèi tuǒyuán xíng yóuyú), 软翅仔 (Ruǎn chì zǐ), 莱氏拟乌贼 (Lái shì nǐ wūzéi), 青眼 (Qīngyǎn)
Local Malay Name: Sotong Mabang, Sotong Mengabang, Maban
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หมึกหอม (Mụk hom), หมึกตะเภา (Muk Tap phau)
Local Hokkien: Cheh Bak
Main Identification Features: Identified by its green eyes with wide fins.

Common Name: Mitre Squid
Scientific Name: Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis  (Gray, 1849)
Family: Loliginidae
Mandarin Name: 中国枪乌贼 (Zhōngguó qiāng wūzéi), 中国鱿鱼 (Zhōngguó yóuyú), 台湾锁管 (Táiwān suǒ guǎn), 苏东 (Sū dōng)
Local Malay Name: Sotong Peluru, Cumi-cumi
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หมึกกล้วย (Mụk klway)
Local Hokkien: Sotong
Main Identification Features: Mantle elongate, slender, cylindrical anteriorly and tapered posteriorly to a blunt point, cutaneous ridge on ventral midline absent. Mantle width 23–35% of mantle length. Fins large, rhombic, anterior margin slightly convex, posterior margin concave, over 60% of mantle length in adults. Head small, broad, head width narrower than mantle width. Eyes prominent. Tentacles moderately long and slender. Club suckers quadriserial, about 12 medial manal suckers are larger than lateral ones. Large tentacular sucker rings with 20–30 sharp, separate conical teeth, 6 to 12 larger teeth interspersed with 1 to 5 smaller ones. Numerous brown chromatophores scattered all over the dorsal and ventral mantle, head, arms and fins.
Size: Maximum 49 cm mantle length, commonly to 20 cm mantle length. Males grow to 49 cm mantle length, females to 31 cm mantle length.
Habitat and Ecology: Coastal waters ranging from 15 to 170 m depth, commonly from 30 to 50 m depth. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively.

Common Name: Emperor Nautilus, Chambered Nautilus
Scientific Name: Nautilus pompilius  Linnaeus, 1758
Family: Nautilidae
Mandarin Name: 鹦鹉螺 (Yīngwǔ luó)
Main Identification Features: Umbilicus small, covered by a calcareous deposit. Brown to reddish brown striped colour pattern. Shell generally smooth, without growth lines.
Habitat and Ecology: Inhabits continental shelf and slope, around coral reefs, from near the surface to a depth of about 750 m. Spends most of the day in deep water, migrates up the coral reef slopes to forage for food at night. Scavengers and opportunistic predators feeding mainly on crustaceans.

Common Name: Spineless Cuttlefish
Scientific Name: Sepiella inermis  (Van Hasselt [in Férussac & d'Orbigny], 1835)
Family: Sepiidae
Mandarin Name: 墨鱼 (Mòyú), 墨斗 (Mòdǒu)
Local Malay Name: Sotong Katak
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: หมึกกระดองก้นไหม้ (Mụk kradong kon mai)
Local Hokkien: Bak Tau
Main Identification Features: Head short and broad. Eyes large and convex. Pupil W-shape in light and round in darkness. Cuttlebone spine absent. 8 or 9 iridescent patches along base of each fin.
Habitat and Ecology: A demersal, shallow-water species, from the surface to a depth of 40 m. Able to camouflage by contracting and relaxing the muscles around the chromatophore cells to change colour. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans and occasionally cephalopods.


ISSCAAP = International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants

sp. = Species
spp. = Several Species (Species Plural)