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Arowanas or bonytongues are the members of the Osteoglossidae family. They are found in South America and Southeast Asia, Australia and New Guinea. They have an elongated and slender body with large scales. Arowanas are easily distinguished from Arapaimas Arapaimidae by having barbels at the symphasis of the lower jaw and a huge mouth with a markedly oblique gape.

In the wild Arowanas are found in quiet water. Adults are mostly carnivorous and feed on other species of fish and large insects, while juveniles feed on small insects.

There are 2 genera and about 5 species worldwide. Two species of Osteoglossum genus are found in South America; Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Silver Arowana) and Osteoglossum ferreirai (Black Arowana). The other 3 species of Scleopages genus are found in Southeast Asia and Australia; Scleropages formosus (Asian Bonytongue), Scleropages jardinii (Australian Bonytongue) and Scleropages leichardti (Southern Saratoga). And possibly a fourth Scleopages species, Scleropages inscriptus from Tananthayi or Tenasserim River basin in Myanmar.

Scientific Name: Scleropages formosus  (Müller & Schlegel, 1840)
English Name: Asian Bonytongue, Malayan Bonytongue, Dragonfish, Golden Arowana, Asian Arowana
Mandarin Name: 金龙鱼 (Jīnlóng yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kelisa, Kelesa, Baju Rantai, Siluk (Indonesia), Arwana (Indonesia), Khayangan (Indonesia)
Local Hokkien: Kim Leng Hu
Thailand Name: ปลาตะพัด (Plā tap hạd), ปลาหางเข้ (Plā h̄āng k̄hê), ปลามังกร (Plā mạngkr)
Main Identification Features: Elongated, knife shaped compressed body, with a rounded tail fin and large dorsal, pectoral and anal fins. The lower jaw bears two, short barbels.
Size: Maximum total length about 90 cm.
Habitat and Ecology: Lives in lakes, deep parts of swamps, flooded forests and stretches of deep rivers with slow currents and dense, overhanging vegetation. Feeds on insects, arachnids, small fishes and vertebrates. A mouth brooder, after spawning, the male will carries the eggs with its mouth. Native to the Mekong basin in Vietnam and Cambodia, southeastern Thailand, Tananthayi or Tenasserim region of Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, and Sumatra.
Remarks: Endangered (2019 IUCN Red List). One of the world’s most expensive cultivated ornamental fishes. Three major colour varieties of Scleropages formosus occur naturally; the green, golden and red varieties.