Carangids (Trevallies)


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Jacks, scads, trevallies, queenfishes, runners, amberjacks, pilotfishes, pampanos and etc are the members of the Carangidae family. The family members are made up of many highly variable body shape fish species. The Carangidae are distinguished from all other similar families in having the first 2 anal fin spines detached from rest of fin. These spines are sometimes partially or completely embedded in large adults of several genera, especially Seriola, Alectis, and Caranx and can only be found by dissection. Most species have spiny scutes along lateral line.

The carangids are marine fishes found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Their habitats and behaviour are highly variable. Most of them are schooling species. Most species are fast swimming predators that hunt at or near the surface, mostly in oceanic waters, and often far offshore. Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes.

There are altogether 30 genera and 147 species in the Carangidae family worldwide. There are 19 genera and about 61 species found in Malaysia.

The family has four subfamilies, Caranginae consist of a mixtures of 20 genera and 104 species like the pompanos, trevallies, scads, horse mackerel, moonfish, lookdown and etc. Naucratinae consist of 5 genera and 13 species also with many mixtures. Trachinotinae consist of 2 genera and 21 species of mostly pompanos. Scomberoidinae consist of 3 genera and 10 species of queenfishes (leatherjacket).

This page shows the species commonly called trevallies.


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Scientific Name: Alectis ciliaris  (Bloch, 1787)
English Name: African Pompano
Mandarin Name: 长丝镜(Cháng sī jìng), 镜鱼 (Jìng yú), 大眼照明 (Dà yǎn zhào míng)
Local Malay Name: Rambai Ebek
Main Diagnostic Features: Profile of nape and head broadly rounded.
Size: Maximum total length about 150 cm, commonly to 100 cm.






Scientific Name: Alectis indica  (Rüppell, 1830)
English Name: Indian Threadfish, Diamond Trevally
Mandarin Name: 斧头鲳(Fǔtóu chāng), 镜鱼 (Jìng yú), 照明 (Zhào míng)
Local Malay Name: Rambai, Sagai
Main Diagnostic Features: Profile of nape and head somewhat angular.
Size: Maximum total length 150 cm.


Adult


Juvenile




Scientific Name: Carangoides armatus  (Rüppell, 1830)
English Name: Longfin Trevally
Mandarin Name: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 甲若鰺 ( Jiǎ ruò shēn )
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Sagai, Rambai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Putih
Main Diagnostic Features: Head profile very steep in adults but relatively straight from snout to nape. Lobe of second dorsal fin elongate and filamentous.
Size: Maximum fork length about 50 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides fulvoguttatus   (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Yellowspotted Trevally
Mandarin Name: 花点水鲳 (Huā diǎn shuǐ chāng), 星點若鰺 (Xīng diǎn ruò shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Sagai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Bintik Kuning
Main Diagnostic Features: Profile of head and nape slightly angular becoming more steep with age. Many small golden or brassy spots mainly above midline. Large individuals often with 3 irregular black blotches.
Size: Maximum total length about 90 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides gymnostethus  (Cuvier, 1833)
English Name: Bludger
Mandarin Name: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 裸胸若鰺 (Luǒ xiōng ruò shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Cupak, Ewe Karm, Demudok Nyior-nyior
Main Diagnostic Features: Profile of head and nape gently convex becoming less steep with age. A few brown or golden spots sometimes present midlaterally.
Size: Maximum total length about 90 cm.







Scientific Name: Carangoides hedlandensis  (Whitley, 1934)
English Name: Bumpnose Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Demudok, Putih, Demudok Lekuk
Main Diagnostic Features: Head profile extremely steep in adults, with a distinct break in contour “bump” in the interorbital region. Lobe of second dorsal fin elongate and filamentous.
Size: Maximum fork length about 28 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides malabaricus  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
English Name: Malabar Trevally
Local Malay Name: Demudok, Ikan Rambai
Local Hokkien: Ngiau Chu Kam
Main Diagnostic Features: Opercle with a small black spot on upper margin. Tongue greyish brown to brown.
Size: Maximum fork length about 24 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides plagiotaenia  Bleeker, 1857
English Name: Barcheek Trevally
Mandarin Name: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 斜条鲹 (Xié tiáo shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Sagai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Pipi Calit
Main Diagnostic Features: Lower jaw somewhat enlarged and projecting beyond upper jaw. No opercular spot but adults with posterior margin of preopercle distinctly dark to black.
Size: Maximum total length about 42 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides praeustus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830)
English Name: Brownback Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cupak, Putih, Demudok Abu-abu
Main Diagnostic Features: Distal half of second dorsal-fin lobe abruptly black, sometimes with a white margin.
Size: Maximum total length about 22 cm.






Scientific Name: Caranx ignobilis  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Giant Trevally
Mandarin Name: 金骨 (Jīn gǔ), 牛公鲳 (Niú gōng chāng), 牛港鲳 (Niú gǎng chāng)
Local Malay Name: Gerepuh,Putih, Belukok Mamong
Local Hokkien: Gu Kang Cheoh
Main Diagnostic Features: End of upper jaw extends to posterior edge of pupil or a little beyond. Adults with head and body silvery grey to black above.
Size: Maximum total length 146 cm.


Juvenile


Adult




Scientific Name: Caranx melampygus  Cuvier, 1833
English Name: Bluefin Trevally
Mandarin Name: 蓝鳍金骨 (Lán qí jīn gǔ)
Local Malay Name: Belukok Sirip Biru, Demudok, Kerepoh
Main Diagnostic Features: Adults with head and dorsal half of body brassy, suffused with blue, and covered with small blue black spots. Second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins electric blue.
Size: Maximum total length about 80 cm.






Scientific Name: Caranx sexfasciatus  Quoy & Gaimard, 1825
English Name: Bigeye Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cupak, Belukok Putih, Kerepoh
Main Diagnostic Features: Small blackish spot at upper angle of opercle. Large eye.
Size: Maximum fork length 78 cm, commonly to about 60 cm.






Scientific Name: Gnathanodon speciosus  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Golden Trevally,Golden Jack
Mandarin Name: 黄合鲳 (Huáng hé chāng)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Gomblang, Gerong-gerong, Kalakitok, Kerong, Gerong Belang
Local Hokkien: Boon Nang, Boon Hong
Main Diagnostic Features: Lips papillose and upper jaw strongly protactile. 7 to 11 black bands that fade with age. The first band oblique through eye. All fins yellow.
Size: Maximum fork length to about 100 cm.


Juvenile


Adult



Scientific Name: Ulua mentalis  (Cuvier, 1833)
English Name: Longrakered Trevally
Mandarin Name: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 羽鰓鰺 (Yǔ sāi shēn), 丝口鲹 (Sī kǒu shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Sagai Mulut Hitam
Main Diagnostic Features: The angle of “chin” projecting beyond upper jaw.
Size: Maximum total length 85 cm, commonly to about 60 cm.