Carangids (Trevallies)


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Jacks, scads, trevallies, queenfishes, runners, amberjacks, pilotfishes, pampanos and etc are the members of the Carangidae family. The family members are made up of many highly variable body shape fish species. The Carangidae are distinguished from all other similar families in having the first 2 anal fin spines detached from rest of fin. These spines are sometimes partially or completely embedded in large adults of several genera, especially Seriola, Alectis, and Caranx and can only be found by dissection. Most species have spiny scutes along lateral line.

The carangids are marine fishes found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Their habitats and behaviour are highly variable. Most of them are schooling species. Most species are fast swimming predators that hunt at or near the surface, mostly in oceanic waters, and often far offshore. Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes.

There are altogether 30 genera and 147 species in the Carangidae family worldwide. There are 19 genera and about 61 species found in Malaysia.

The family has four subfamilies, Caranginae consist of a mixtures of 20 genera and 104 species like the pompanos, trevallies, scads, horse mackerel, moonfish, lookdown and etc. Naucratinae consist of 5 genera and 13 species also with many mixtures. Trachinotinae consist of 2 genera and 21 species of mostly pompanos. Scomberoidinae consist of 3 genera and 10 species of queenfishes (leatherjacket).

This page shows the species commonly called trevallies.


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Scientific Name: Alectis ciliaris  (Bloch, 1787)
English Name: African Pompano
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 长丝镜(Cháng sī jìng), 镜鱼 (Jìng yú), 大眼照明 (Dà yǎn zhào míng)
Local Malay Name: Rambai Ebek
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาโฉมงาม (Plā c̄homngām), ปลาผมนางลาย (Plā p̄hmnāng lāy)
Main Identification Features: Body deep and very compressed. Profile of nape and head broadly rounded. Black blotch on the front part of the dorsal fin. Juvenile diamond-shaped with long dorsal and anal fins filaments but lack pelvic fin filaments. The filaments gradually reduce as the fish grows and are absent in adult.
Size: Maximum total length about 150 cm, commonly to 100 cm.






Scientific Name: Alectis indica  (Rüppell, 1830)
English Name: Indian Threadfish, Diamond Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 斧头鲳(Fǔtóu chāng), 镜鱼 (Jìng yú), 照明 (Zhào míng)
Local Malay Name: Rambai, Sagai, Ebek
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาโฉมงามหน้าหัก (Plā c̄homngām h̄n̂ā h̄ạk), ปลาผมนางหน้าตัด (Plā p̄hmnāng h̄n̂ā tạd)
Main Identification Features: Body angular and strongly compressed. Profile of nape and head somewhat angular. Juvenile diamond-shaped with long dorsal, anal and pelvic fins filaments. The filaments gradually reduce as the fish grows and are absent in adult.
Size: Maximum total length 150 cm.


Adult


Juvenile

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Scientific Name: Carangoides armatus  (Rüppell, 1830)
English Name: Longfin Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 甲若鰺 ( Jiǎ ruò shēn )
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Sagai, Rambai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Putih
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาจุยจินขาว (Plā cuy cin k̄hāw)
Main Identification Features: Head profile very steep in adults but relatively straight from snout to nape. Lobe of second dorsal fin elongate and filamentous.
Size: Maximum fork length about 50 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides fulvoguttatus  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Yellowspotted Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 花点水鲳 (Huā diǎn shuǐ chāng), 星點若鰺 (Xīng diǎn ruò shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Sagai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Bintik Kuning
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาสีกุนจุดเหลือง (Plā s̄īkun cud h̄elụ̄xng)
Main Identification Features: Profile of head and nape slightly angular becoming more steep with age. Many small golden or brassy spots mainly above midline. Large individuals often with 3 irregular black blotches.
Size: Maximum total length about 90 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides gymnostethus  (Cuvier, 1833)
English Name: Bludger
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 裸胸若鰺 (Luǒ xiōng ruò shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Cupak, Ewe Karm, Demudok Nyior-nyior
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาสีกุนกลม (Plā s̄īkun klm), ปลาม่งกลม (Plā m̀ng klm), มงหัวกลม (Mng h̄ạw klm)
Main Identification Features: Profile of head and nape gently convex becoming less steep with age. A few brown or golden spots sometimes present midlaterally.
Size: Maximum total length about 90 cm.








Scientific Name: Carangoides hedlandensis  (Whitley, 1934)
English Name: Bumpnose Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Demudok, Putih, Demudok Lekuk
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาสีกุนครีบยาว (Plā s̄īkun khrīb yāw), ปลามงแซ่ (Plā mng sæ̀), ปลาผมนาง (Plā p̄hmnāng)
Main Identification Features: Head profile extremely steep in adults, with a distinct break in contour “bump” in the interorbital region. Lobe of second dorsal fin elongate and filamentous.
Size: Maximum fork length about 28 cm.








Scientific Name: Carangoides malabaricus  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
English Name: Malabar Trevally
Local Malay Name: Demudok, Ikan Rambai
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลากะมงปากบาง (Plā ka mng pāk bāng)
Local Hokkien: Ngiau Chu Kam
Main Identification Features: Opercle with a small black spot on upper margin. Tongue greyish brown to brown.
Size: Maximum fork length about 24 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides plagiotaenia  Bleeker, 1857
English Name: Barcheek Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 斜条鲹 (Xié tiáo shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Sagai, Cermin, Cupak, Demudok Pipi Calit
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลากะมงแก้มหนา (Plā ka mng kæ̂m h̄nā)
Main Identification Features: Lower jaw somewhat enlarged and projecting beyond upper jaw. No opercular spot but adults with posterior margin of preopercle distinctly dark to black.
Size: Maximum total length about 42 cm.






Scientific Name: Carangoides praeustus  (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830)
English Name: Brownback Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cupak, Putih, Demudok Abu-abu
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาสีกุนเล็กครีบดำ (Plā s̄īkun lĕk khrīb dả)
Main Identification Features: Distal half of second dorsal-fin lobe abruptly black, sometimes with a white margin.
Size: Maximum total length about 22 cm.






Scientific Name: Caranx ignobilis  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Giant Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 金骨 (Jīn gǔ), 牛公鲳 (Niú gōng chāng), 牛港鲳 (Niú gǎng chāng)
Local Malay Name: Gerepuh,Putih, Belukok Mamong
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลากะมงพร้าว (Plā ka mng phr̂āw), ปลากะมงยักษ์ (Plā ka mng yạks̄), ปลาตะคองยักษ์ (Plā ta khxng yạks̄)
Local Hokkien: Gu Kang Cheoh
Main Identification Features: End of upper jaw extends to posterior edge of pupil or a little beyond. Adults with head and body silvery grey to black above. Head profile steep and straight. Body covered with numerous black dots.
Size: Maximum total length 146 cm.


Juvenile


Adult




Scientific Name: Caranx melampygus  Cuvier, 1833
English Name: Bluefin Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 蓝鳍金骨 (Lán qí jīn gǔ)
Local Malay Name: Belukok Sirip Biru, Demudok, Kerepoh
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลากะมงครีบฟ้า (Plā ka mng khrīb f̂ā)
Main Identification Features: Adults with head and dorsal half of body brassy, suffused with blue, and covered with small blue black spots. Second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins electric blue.
Size: Maximum total length about 80 cm.






Scientific Name: Caranx papuensis  Alleyne & MacLeay, 1877
English Name: Brassy Trevally
Local Malay Name: Belukok Bintik Hitam, Belukok Papua
Bahasa Indonesia: Ikan Kwee Papua
Main Identification Features: Adults with head and dorsal half of body brassy, with small dark spots (more numerous with increasing size). Upper lobe of tail usually uniformly pigmented, lower tail lobe with narrow white or yellowish margin. Conspicuous silvery white spot at the intersection of opercle and lateral line.
Size: Maximum total length about 88 cm.






Scientific Name: Caranx sexfasciatus  Quoy & Gaimard, 1825
English Name: Bigeye Trevally
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cupak, Belukok Putih, Kerepoh
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาหางกิ่วหม้อ (Plā h̄āngkìw h̄m̂x)
Main Identification Features: Breast completely scaly. Small blackish spot at upper angle of opercle. Upper half of body without small dark spots. Second dorsal fin olive to blackish, the lobe with a white tip (becoming more obvious with size). Anal fin with white tip.
Size: Maximum fork length 78 cm, commonly to about 60 cm.


Juvenile


Adult




Scientific Name: Gnathanodon speciosus  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Golden Trevally,Golden Jack
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 黄合鲳 (Huáng hé chāng)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Gomblang, Gerong-gerong, Kalakitok, Kerong, Gerong Belang
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาตะคองเหลือง (Plā ta khxng h̄elụ̄xng), ปลาทูทอง (Plā thū thxng)
Local Hokkien: Boon Nang, Boon Hong
Main Identification Features: Lips papillose and upper jaw strongly protactile. 7 to 11 black bands that fade with age. The first band oblique through eye. All fins yellow.
Size: Maximum fork length to about 100 cm.


Juvenile


Adult




Scientific Name: Ulua mentalis  (Cuvier, 1833)
English Name: Longrakered Trevally
Mandarin Name | 鱼类中文名: 镜鲳 (Jìng chāng), 羽鰓鰺 (Yǔ sāi shēn), 丝口鲹 (Sī kǒu shēn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Cermin, Sagai Dagu, Sagai Mulut Hitam
Thai Name | ชื่อสามัญภาษาไทย: ปลาจุยจินเหงือกยาว (Plā cuy ci n h̄engụ̄xk yāw), มงปากกว้าง (Mng pākkŵāng)
Main Identification Features: Lower jaw prominent in large adults. The angle of “chin” projecting beyond upper jaw. Spinous dorsal and caudal fins dusky to black. Adults with a dusky mark on cheek at angle of jaws.
Size: Maximum total length 100 cm, commonly to about 60 cm.





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