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Abdomen Belly; lowest part of fish body. Fish Anatomy 
Abyssal zone Region of the ocean floor between the depths of 4000 and 6000 meters. Habitat 
Abyssopelagic Pelagic zone between the depths of 4000 and 6000 meters.  Habitat 
Actinosts Series of bones at the base of the pectoral rays. Fish Anatomy 
Acuminate Tapering gradually to a point. Description 
Acute Pointed; Sharp. Description 
Adipose eyelid Transparent fleshy tissue covering part or all of the eye in some fishes. Fish Anatomy 
Adipose fin Small fleshy fin-like projection on the back between the dorsal fin and the caudal fin. Only some fishes have it. Fish Anatomy 
Adnate Joined together. Description 
Adpressed Pressed close to or lying close against body. Description 
Aestivate Dormant or inactive during dry period. Biology 
Affluent A stream or river that flows into a larger one; a tributary. Habitat 
Airbladder Also referred to as swimbladder or gasbladder. A gas-filled sac lying under the backbone in the abdominal cavity, used in buoyancy. Fish Anatomy 
Amphidromous Fish that migrate from fresh water to the seas, or vice versa, but not for the purpose of breeding. Biology 
Anadromous Living mostly in salt water and migrating to spawn in fresh water. Biology 
Anal Pertaining to the anus or anal fin. Fish Anatomy 
Anal fin Lower fin on the belly behind the anus. Fish Anatomy 
Angler A person that uses a fishing rod and reel to catch fish. Fishing 
Angling Recreational catching of fish with hook, bait, line and fishing rod or pole. Fishing 
Ankylosed Grown firmly together. Description 
Antennae Paired feelers on the head of crustaceans. Other 
Anterior Pertaining to the front portion. Description 
Anti-reverse Fishing reel mechanical system that prevents the reel from spinning in reverse rotation and causing tangles. Fishing 
Antrorse Turned forward. Description 
Anus Vent; opening of the intestine through which wastes are excreted. Fish Anatomy 
Archipelago A group of islands; an expanse of water with scattered islands. Habitat 
Arthropods Member of Phylum Arthropoda having a hard exoskeleton and jointed legs; includes insects, crustaceans, and arachnids. Biology 
Asperity Rough edge on a surface. Description 
Asymetrical Not symmetry, uneven, of different shape or size. Description 
Attenuate Tapering to a point. Description 
Attenuate Elongate; extended or drawn out. Description 
Attractant Scent additive applied to fishing lures to attract fish. Fishing 
Axil Angular area between pectoral fin and body. Fish Anatomy 
Axillary scale An elongate or modified scale at the insertion of the pelvic or pectoral fins. Only on some fishes. Fish Anatomy 
Backlash A tangle or snarl in the fishing line cause by overrun spool. Fishing 
Backwater An area of a river that is sometimes isolated. Habitat 
Bail arm A semi circular part of a fishing reel that guides the line on the spool. Fishing 
Baitrunner A fishing reel with more than one drag settings that can be switched. Fishing 
Band An oblique or irregular marking. Description 
Bar An elongate nearly straight vertical marking. Description 
Barb A sharp projection on the fishing hook that holds a hooked fish. Fishing 
Barbel Fleshy whisker-like projection, usually under the mouth. Fish Anatomy 
Basal Pertaining to the base. Description 
Base of fin The part of the fin that attaches to the body. Fish Anatomy 
Bathyl Zone Region of the ocean floor between the depths of 1000 and 4000 meters. Habitat 
Bathypelagic Pelagic zone between the depths of 1000 and 4000 meters.  Habitat 
Bay Indentation in the shoreline of a river, lake or other body of water. Habitat 
Bayou A marshy outlet of a lake or river. Habitat 
Benthic Refer to to the ocean bottom; bottom-dwelling; living on the sea bed. Habitat 
Benthopelagic Living in the waters above but near the bottom. Habitat 
Blind Side The side of a flatfish that does not have any eyes. Fish Anatomy 
Blotch An enlarged area or patch that is different in colour from adjacent areas. Description 
Bobber A float attached to the line to hold the bait or lure at a predetermined depth and act as a strike indicator. Fishing 
Bottom fishing Fishing with the hook placed close to the water bed for benthic fish. Fishing 
Brackish Mixed fresh and marine water. Habitat 
Branchiae The gills of fish and some invertebrate animals. Fish Anatomy 
Branchial aperture Gill opening. Fish Anatomy 
Branchiostegal rays Bony rays supporting the membranes inside the lower part of the gill cover, behind the lower jaw. Fish Anatomy 
Breast Ventral surface of body between the gill opening and pectoral or pelvic fins. Fish Anatomy 
Bristle Stiff projection. Description 
Canine teeth Slender conical, often enlarged and elongated teeth. Fish Anatomy 
Carapace Shell or exoskeleton encasing the body. Crustacean Anatomy 
Carnivorous Feeding on animals; flesh eating. Biology 
Cartilage A gristle-like material that is more flexible than bone, but serving a similar structural purpose. Fish Anatomy 
Caruncle A fleshy outgrowth. Fish Anatomy 
Casting The act of throwing bait or lure over the water,using a fishing rod. Fishing 
Catadromous Living mostly in fresh water and migrating to the sea to spawn. Biology 
Caudal Pertaining to the tail. Fish Anatomy 
Caudal fin Tail fin. Fish Anatomy 
Caudal keel A lateral ridge found just forward of the tail fin on the caudal peduncle of some fast-swimming fish. Fish Anatomy 
Caudal peduncle The base of the tail between the end of anal fin and the base of caudal fin; caudal wrist. Fish Anatomy 
Caudal wrist The base of the tail between the end of anal fin and the base of caudal fin; caudal peduncle. Fish Anatomy 
Cephalopods Member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles converge at the head. Typically octopuses and squids. Biology 
Cheek Side of head below and slightly behind the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Cirri Plural of cirrus. Fish Anatomy 
Cirrus A small, fleshy protuberance, often subdivided into branches. Fish Anatomy 
Claspers External reproductive organs of male sharks, rays and chimaeras. Fish Anatomy 
Cleaner fish Refer to cleaning stations. Habitat 
Cleaning stations Places on the reef where where various species of fish and shrimps, known as cleaners live. These small fish and shrimp pick off bacteria, parasites and dead skin from the skin, scales, gills and even the mouths of fish. Habitat 
Cleithral spine Spine at the dorsal end of the cleithrum, usually prominent when present and directed backwards. Fish Anatomy 
Cleithrum Major bone providing basal support for the pectoral girdle and fin. Fish Anatomy 
Compressed body Body flattened laterally. Description 
Concave Curved inwards. Opposite of convex. Description 
Continental rise The gentle slope at the base of the continental slope. Habitat 
Continental shelf The flattened edge of the continental land mass between the coast and the continental slope. Generally from the subtidal zone to about 200 meters depth. Habitat 
Continental slope The sloping edge of the continental land mass. Generally beginning from about 200 meters to 4000 meters depth. Habitat 
Convex Curved outwards. Opposite of concave. Description 
Corselet A scaly covering forms behind the head, encircling the pectoral region and continues along the lateral line of some fishes. Present on some scombrids. Fish Anatomy 
Cranial Pertaining to the skull. Fish Anatomy 
Cranium Skull. Fish Anatomy 
Crenulate Scalloped or wavy edge. Description 
Crustacean Member of the subphylum Crustacea which include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. Biology 
Ctenoid scale Scale with a spiny or toothed posterior margin. Description 
Cutaneous Pertaining to the skin. Fish Anatomy 
Cycloid scale Scale with smooth posterior margin. Description 
Deciduous scales Easily shed or rubbed off scales. Description 
Deep ocean current Current driven by density and temperature gradients. Habitat 
Demersal Living on or near the sea bottom. Habitat 
Dendritic Resembling a tree or shrub. Description 
Denticle Small tooth-like structures. Fish Anatomy 
Depressed body Body flattened from top to bottom. Description 
Depth of body The height of the body or head from top to bottom. Description 
Dermal Pertaining to the skin. Fish Anatomy 
Diadromous Fish that migrate between the sea and fresh water for breeding purpose. Biology 
Dimorphic Body shape and colour varies between the sexes. Biology 
Disc The flattened head and body of batoid fishes. Fish Anatomy 
Distal Near outer edge; far end from point of attachment. Description 
Diurnal Active during daylight. Biology 
Dorsal Pertaining to the back. Fish Anatomy 
Dorsal fin Upper body fin. Sometimes consist of 2 or more separated fins. Fish Anatomy 
Dorsum The upper surface of the head or body. Fish Anatomy 
Drift fishing Fishing while the boat drifts with the current. Fishing 
Ebb tide A falling tide, the phase of the tide between high water and the succeeding low water. Habitat 
Ecosystem A community of organisms interacting with one another and the physical environment. Habitat 
Edentulous Without teeth. Description 
Elasmobranchs Cartilaginous fishes. Biology 
Electrocyte Cell that generates electricity. Fish Anatomy 
Elongate Extended in length. Description 
Emarginate caudal fin Caudal fin shape with margin slightly concave. Description 
Endangered species A population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct. Other 
Endemic Native and restricted to a particular region or area. Habitat 
Epibenthic Living on the bottom surface. Habitat 
Epipelagic Pelagic zone from the surface to the depths of 200 meters. Also photic zone, euphotic zone, sunlit zone or sunlight zone. Habitat 
Esca The lure on the end of the illicium of some fishes. Fish Anatomy 
Estuarine Living mainly in estuaries. Habitat 
Estuary The tidal reaches of rivers; partly enclosed body of mixed sea water and fresh water. Habitat 
Euryhaline Organisms that are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities. Habitat 
Eyed Side The side of a flatfish that has both eyes. Fish Anatomy 
Falcate Shape of sickle or scythe. Description 
Falciform Curve like a sickle. Description 
Family A group term for classifying organisms, containing one or more related genera. Biology 
Farmed fish Fish farmed using aquaculture techniques. Other 
Filiform Threadlike. Description 
Fimbriate Fringed at the margin. Description 
Fin insertion The anterior or posterior point of attachment of a fin to the body. Fish Anatomy 
Finlets Series of small fins arranged along the back and belly usually close to the caudal fin. Fish Anatomy 
Fish finder Electronic sonar device which indicates the presence of fish. Fishing 
Flexion The action of bending or the condition of being bent. Description 
Fluviatile Living in river. Habitat 
Fly fishing A fishing technique using artificial fly or lure. Fishing 
Forked caudal fin Caudal fin shape with distinct upper and lower lobes and the posterior margin of each lobe relatively straight or gently curved.  Description 
Fork length (FL) The length of a fish as measured from the tip of the snout to the center of the fork in the caudal fin. Measurement for fishes with forked tails and which it is difficult to tell where the vertebral column ends. Fish Anatomy 
Frontal ridge A ridge running along the top of the head along the midline. Fish Anatomy 
Furcate Forked. Description 
Fusiform body Body shape that is cylindrical and tapering at both ends. Description 
Game fish Fish caught for sport. Fishing 
Gasbladder A gas-filled sac lying under the backbone in the abdominal cavity, used in buoyancy. Also referred to as airbladder or swimbladder. Fish Anatomy 
Gastropods Member of the molluscan class Gastropoda consisting of snails and slugs. Biology 
Genera Plural of genus. Biology 
Genus A group term for classifying organisms, containing one or more related species. Biology 
Gill Organ for exchange of dissolved gasses between water and the blood stream. Fish Anatomy 
Gill arches The bony arches to which the gills are attached. Fish Anatomy 
Gill cover The plate at the posterior end of the head that covers the gills; also called operculum.  Fish Anatomy 
Gill filaments Principal site of gas exchange in the gill. Fish Anatomy 
Gill membrane membranes along the posterior and ventral margin of the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Gill opening Opening behind the operculum. Fish Anatomy 
Gill rakers A series of bony projections along the anterior edges of the gill arches. Help prevent food from escaping through the gill opening. Fish Anatomy 
Gill slits Slit-like gills openings in fishes such as sharks, rays, and skates. Fish Anatomy 
Gizzard An organ for grinding food; also called ventriculus. Fish Anatomy 
Glossohyal Tongue bone. Fish Anatomy 
Gonad An organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary. Fish Anatomy 
Gonopodium A modification of the anal fin of some male fish species to serve as a copulatory organ. Fish Anatomy 
Gular plate Bony plate covering the underside of the head, behind the chin and between the sides of the lower jaw. Fish Anatomy 
Gulf A large area of water bordered by land on three sides. Habitat 
Habitat The place or environment where an organism naturally or normally lives and grows. Habitat 
Hadalpelagic  Pelagic zone between the depths of 6000 and 10300 meters. Habitat 
Hadal Zone Region of the ocean floor between the depths of 6000 and 10300 meters. Habitat 
Halocline A zone in which salinity changes rapidly. Habitat 
Handline Fishing line used without a rod or reel. Fishing 
Haremic A mating system where a group of female animals share a single mate. Biology 
Herbivorous Feeding on plant. Biology 
Heterocercal caudal fin The shape of a tail fin with a long upper lobe and a shorter lower lobe. Description 
Hyaline Translucent or transparent. Description 
Hypoxia Depletion of dissolved oxygen to a level which is harmful to aquatic organisms. Habitat 
Hypural The spines or bones of the last few vertebrae that supports the caudal fin rays. Fish Anatomy 
Hypural bone Plate-like bone supporting the caudal fin. Fish Anatomy 
Ichthyologist Scientist who studies fish. Other 
Ichthyoplankton Fish eggs and larvae. Biology 
Illicium The modified isolated first ray of the dorsal fin that forms the “fishing rod" in anglerfishes. Fish Anatomy 
Imbricate Overlapping arrangement as in roof tiles and fish scales. Description 
Incised fin Fin membranes with a notched margin. Description 
Incisor The front and flattened chisel-shaped tooth. Fish Anatomy 
Inferior mouth Mouth position on underside of head with snout projecting in front of mouth. Description 
Infraorbital canal The canal running from behind mid-eye, courses down and under the eye, and continues forward nearly to the snout. Fish Anatomy 
Infraorbital pores Pores in infraorbital canal located along upper jaw below and slightly before eye. Fish Anatomy 
Initial phase Colour phase of some fish comprising non-juvenile females and immature males. Biology 
Interbreed Hybrid offspring produced by two different species. Biology 
Interdorsal The space on the back between the bases of the first and second dorsal fins. Fish Anatomy 
Interopercle The lower anterior bone of the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Interorbital The space on top of the head between the eyes. Fish Anatomy 
Intertidal The area of the shore covered at high tide and exposed at low tide. Habitat 
Intromittent organ A male copulatory organ in some internally fertilizating species. Fish Anatomy 
Isthmus The fleshy projection part of the underside of the head separating the gill openings. Fish Anatomy 
Jaws The part of the mouth supporting the teeth. Fish Anatomy 
Jigging A technique of fishing using jigs or lures on a vertical line that moved up and down. Fishing 
Jugular Pertaining to the throat region. Fish Anatomy 
Juvenile Young; immature life stage. Description 
Juxtaposed Placed close together. Description 
Keel A fleshy ridge. Fish Anatomy 
Labial Pertaining to the lips. Fish Anatomy 
Labial furrows Shallow grooves around the lips of many cartilaginous fish. Fish Anatomy 
Labial papillae Fleshy projections around the lips. Fish Anatomy 
Lagoon A body of shallow water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature. Habitat 
Lanceolate Spear-shaped or lance-shaped. Description 
Larva Early life stage of some animals which often looks very different than the adult. Biology 
Lateral The side or toward the side. Description 
Lateral line Series of sensory pores opening to the exterior located along the side of fish. Fish Anatomy 
Lateral-line pores Pores in lateral-line canal, usually beginning behind eye and ending near tail tip. Fish Anatomy 
Leader A wire or real strong fishing line that attaches to the end of the main line. Fishing 
Lepidophagous Scale-eater. Behaviour 
Lepidophagy Specialised feeding behaviour in fish that involves eating of scales of other fish. Biology 
Littoral The intertidal area of the shore. Habitat 
Longline A line bearing numerous baited hooks, typically set horizontally in water column. Fishing 
Lunate caudal fin Caudal fin shaped like a crescent moon; caudal-fin shape that is deeply emarginate with long and narrow lobes. Description 
Mandible Lower jaw. Fish Anatomy 
Margin Edge or rim. Fish Anatomy 
Maxilla The bone in the upper jaw behind the premaxilla. Fish Anatomy 
Maxillary teeth Upper jaw teeth. Fish Anatomy 
Median The middle or toward the midline. Description 
Median fins Fins that lie on the midline which include the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. Fish Anatomy 
Melanophore Melanin bearing cell carrying black or greyish pigments. Fish Anatomy 
Mesopelagic Pelagic zone between the depths of 200 and 1000 meters. Habitat 
Midwater The middle stratum of water, well below the surface and well above the seabed. Habitat 
Molar Low,blunt,rounded tooth for crushing and grinding. Fish Anatomy 
Molariform teeth Broad, rounded teeth adapted for grinding. Fish Anatomy 
Mollusk Member of Phylum Mollusca having a soft body and usually a shell. Biology 
Mud flat Coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by the tides or rivers, sea and oceans. Habitat 
Multiserial teeth Teeth arranged in multiple rows. Fish Anatomy 
Nape The dorsal part of the body just behind the hard dorsal region of the skull and before the dorsal fin. Fish Anatomy 
Nasoral Region between the nostrils and mouth. Fish Anatomy 
Neap tide The tide with the least difference between the high and low level water. During first quarter and last quarter moon. Habitat 
Neritic Nearshore; the zone of water above the continental shelves. Habitat 
Nictitating membrane Inner eyelid. Fish Anatomy 
Nocturnal Active during nighttime. Biology 
Nuchal Pertaining to the nape. Fish Anatomy 
Oblique Slanting or sloping. Description 
Obtuse Blunt. Description 
Occipital Pertaining to the upper back part of the head or skull. Fish Anatomy 
Occiput Upper back part of the head or skull. Fish Anatomy 
Oceanic Living in the open ocean. Habitat 
Oceanodromous Fish that migrate only within marine waters. Biology 
Ocelli Plural of ocellus. Description 
Ocellus A round eye-like spot or marking with a marginal ring. Description 
Ocular Pertaining to the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Olfactory Pertaining to the sense of smell. Fish Anatomy 
Omnivorous Feeding on both animals and plants. Biology 
Opercle The large posterior upper bone of the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Opercular Pertaining to the operculum. Fish Anatomy 
Opercular spine Spine projecting from the gill gover. Fish Anatomy 
Operculum Gill cover; the plate at the posterior end of the head that covers the gills. Fish Anatomy 
Orbital bones The bones surrounding the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Origin of fin The anterior point of attachment of the fin to the body. Fish Anatomy 
Osseus Bone. Fish Anatomy 
Otolith A small bone or earstone in the inner ear of fishes. Fish Anatomy 
Ovate Egg-shaped. Description 
Ovigerous Carrying or bearing eggs. Biology 
Oviparous Producing eggs that hatch outside the body of the mother. Biology 
Oxbow A U-shaped bend in a river or stream. Habitat 
Paired fins Fins found on both sides of the body which include the pectoral and pelvic fins. Fish Anatomy 
Palate The roof of the mouth. Fish Anatomy 
Palatine The paired bones on each side of the palate. Fish Anatomy 
Papilla A small fleshy projection. Fish Anatomy 
Papillae Plural of Papilla Fish Anatomy 
Papillose Covered with papillae. Fish Anatomy 
Pectoral fins Paired fins on the sides behind the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Pelagic Living on or in the open seas or oceans but not near the bottom. Habitat 
Pelvic fins  Paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins, and in front of the anal fin. Also called ventral fins. Fish Anatomy 
Pharyngeal Pertaining to the back part of the throat, into which the gill slits open. Fish Anatomy 
Piscivorous Feeding on fishes. Biology 
Planktivorous Feeding on plankton. Biology 
Polygonal Shape having more than four sides. Description 
Pore A small secretory or sensory opening. Fish Anatomy 
Posterior Pertaining to the rear portion. Description 
Postorbital Region behind the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Potamodromous Fish that migrate between upstream and downstream in freshwater. Habitat 
Preanal length The horizontal distance from the snout tip to the mid-anus. Fish Anatomy 
Predator Animal that captures its prey live. Biology 
Premaxilla Anterior bone in the upper jaw. Fish Anatomy 
Preopercle The upper anterior bone of the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Preorbital Region under and in front of the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Protractile Capable of being thrust out. Description 
Protrusible Capable of being thrust out. Description 
Proximal Nearest. Description 
Pseudobranchium A small patch of gill-like filaments on the upper inner surface of the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Ray Supporting element of fins. Fish Anatomy 
Recruitment Entry of individuals into a particular category. Habitat 
Red tide Proliferation of marine plankton that is toxic and often fatal to fish. This phenomenon is stimulated by phosphorus and other nutrients that are discharged into waterways by human beings. Habitat 
Reticulum The colour pattern in which lines form a network pattern around and between spots. Description 
Retrorse Turned or pointing backward. Description 
Rhomboidal caudal fin Caudal fin having top and bottom unequal length/shape. Description 
Roe Eggs of fishes. Biology 
Rostrum Projecting snout or beak of the carapace of a crustacean. Other 
Rounded caudal fin Caudal fin shape with the terminal border smoothly convex. Description 
Rudiment A poorly developed structure. Description 
Saddle A blotch extending across the dorsal surface from one side to another. Description 
Salinity Saltiness of the water. Habitat 
Scale A small, flattened, rigid, and circumscribed plate on the external body. Fish Anatomy 
Scavenger Animal that feeds on dead organisms or organic matter. Biology 
Scute A modified scale. Can be enlarged, horny, hardened, ridged, keeled, or spiny. Fish Anatomy 
Seine A fishing net that hangs vertically in the water column and encircles fish when its ends are drawn together. Fishing 
Semidemersal fish Fish living above the seafloor, feed mainly on zooplankton. Habitat 
Serrate Saw-like notches along a margin. Description 
Setae Bristles or hardened hair-like projections. Description 
Sexual dimorphism Differences in physical appearance between the sexes. Biology 
Sinker A weight used to sink the bait or lure. Fishing 
Snout The part of the head in front of the eyes. Fish Anatomy 
Soft dorsal The posterior portion of the dorsal fin which is composed of jointed rays. Fish Anatomy 
Soft ray Laterally paired, segmented, and usually flexible and branched fin support element. Fish Anatomy 
Spatial Pertaining to distribution, distance, direction, areas and other aspects of space. Habitat 
Spatulate Spatula-like or shovel-like. Description 
Spawn To lay eggs; to produce offspring in large numbers. Biology 
Species Interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other populations. Biology 
Spine Unpaired laterally, unsegmented, unbranched and usually stiff and pointed fin support element. Fish Anatomy 
Spinous dorsal The anterior portion of the dorsal fin that is supported by spines. Fish Anatomy 
Spiracles Respiratory openings behind the eyes in sharks and rays. Fish Anatomy 
Spot A regularly shaped or rounded area of a colour different from adjacent areas. Description 
Spring tide The tide with the largest difference between the high and low level water. During new and full moon. Habitat 
Standard length (SL) The distance from the anterior most point on the fish to the posterior extremity of the hypural plate, the expanded bones at the end of the backbone that support the caudal fin. Fish Anatomy 
Striae Narrow bands of colour or a ridges, grooves, or similar linear marks, usually in parallel series. Description 
Stripe An elongated nearly straight horizontal marking. Description 
Subequal Almost equal. Description 
Submarginal Adjacent to the margin. Description 
Subopercle The lower rear bone in the gill cover. Fish Anatomy 
Suborbital Region below the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Subterminal mouth Mouth position that is oriented behind the snout and faces downward. Description 
Subtidal The ocean floor below the low tide mark. Habitat 
Superior Above or on the upper surface. Habitat 
Superior mouth Mouth position with the snout behind the anterior opening of the mouth. Description 
Supraorbital Region above the eye. Fish Anatomy 
Surface ocean current Wind driven current. Habitat 
Surfcasting Fishing from a shoreline using a rod to cast into the surf. Fishing 
Swimbladder A gas-filled sac lying under the backbone in the abdominal cavity, used in buoyancy. Also referred to as airbladder or gasbladder. Fish Anatomy 
Tackle Fishing equipment. Fishing 
Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms. Biology 
Teleost A member of the large group containing most of the bony fishes. Biology 
Terminal Pertaining to at the end, or situated at the end. Description 
Terminal mouth Mouth position with the opening of the mouth even with the tip of the snout. Description 
Terminal phase Colour phase of adult male of some fish, usually more brightly coloured than initial phase. Biology 
Terminal tackle The gear attached to the end of the fishing line. Fishing 
Thoracic Pertaining to the chest. Fish Anatomy 
Tidal current Alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide as the earth rotates. Habitat 
Tide The rise and falling of seas, oceans and rivers caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun. Habitat 
Total length (TL) The distance from the anterior most point on the fish to the posterior edge of the caudal finfold. Fish Anatomy 
Toxin Poisonous substance produced by a living organism. Biology 
Trawling Fishing technique with the boat moving and the fishing net trailing behind. Fishing 
Treble hook A hook with three sharp points. Fishing 
Trolling Fishing technique with the boat moving and the fishing line trailing behind. Fishing 
Truncate caudal fin Caudal fin terminating abruptly in a square end. Description 
Tubercle A small lump or excrescence. Description 
Turbidity current current of rapidly moving, sediment-laden water that is heavier than clear water and therefore flows downslope along the bottom of the sea or a lake. Habitat 
Undulated Having a wavy surface, edge, or markings. Description 
Uniserial teeth Teeth in a single row. Fish Anatomy 
Vent Anus; opening of the intestine through which wastes are excreted. Fish Anatomy 
Ventral Pertaining to the abdominal or lower surface of the body. Fish Anatomy 
Ventral fins Paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins, and in front of the anal fin. Also called pelvic fins. Fish Anatomy 
Ventriculus Gizzard; an organ for grinding food. Fish Anatomy 
Vertebrae The bones of the spinal column. Fish Anatomy 
Vertical fins The median fins which include the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. Fish Anatomy 
Vestige Small or underdeveloped structure. Description 
Villiform teeth Slender teeth forming velvety bands. Fish Anatomy 
Viviparous Giving birth to living offspring that develop within the body of the mother. Biology 
Vomer An unpaired median bone on the roof of the mouth. Fish Anatomy 
Vomerine teeth Teeth on the vomer bone along the midline of the upper jaw. Fish Anatomy 
Wetlands Areas of land where the soil is saturated with moisture, such as swamps and mangrove forests. Habitat 
Yolk Sac A bag-like ventral extension of the gut containing nutrive materials. Fish Anatomy 
Zooplankton Small aquatic animals that are suspended or swimming in water. Biology 
Showing 366 items