Snappers (Lutjaninae)


Home
Browse
Previous
Next

Snappers are found in tropical and subtropical waters of all oceans. They are excellent food fish. Some species of snappers can grow to about a meter in length. They are predatory fish with sharp, conical teeth and often with canine teeth. Snappers get their name from their tendency to snap or bite swiftly at food. Most of snappers will run with the food before eating it.

Most snappers form large schools that swim close to the bottom over reef or rocky ground. Certain species of snapper sometimes foray into freshwater in search of food. Snapper commonly feeds on fish, crustaceans and mollusk, particularly squid. Some species also eat plankton.

There are about 110 species of snappers that make up the Lutjanidae family worldwide. The Lutjanidae family are further break down into 4 subfamily which are the Lutjaninae, Etelinae, Apsilinae and Paradicichthyinae. There are 77 species under Lutjaninae which are the typical snappers, 19 species under Etelinae that are sometimes referred to as jobfishes, 12 species under Apsilinae that have a close resemblance to the fusiliers and 2 species under Paradicichthyinae that have long anterior dorsal soft ray.

Malaysia is represented by 10 genera and about 49 species of snappers. There are 33 species under Lutjaninae, 11 species under Etelinae, 3 species under Apsilinae and 2 species under Paradicichthyinae. This page will shows the Lutjaninae.


Home
Browse
Previous
Next


Scientific Name: Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Mangrove Jack, Mangrove Red Snapper
Mandarin Name: 赤鰽 (Chì qiú), 红家定 (Hóng jiā dìng)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah, Kakap Merah, Siakap Merah
Local Hokkien: Ciak Zho
Main Diagnostic Features: Back and sides greenish brown to reddish. Belly silvery or whitish. Specimens from deep water frequently overall reddish. Juveniles with a series of about 8 whitish bars crossing sides, and 1 or 2 blue lines across cheek.
Size: Maximum total length about 120 cm, commonly to 80 cm.








Scientific Name: Lutjanus boutton (Lacepède, 1802)
English Name: Button Snapper, Moluccan Snapper
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah, Merah Maluku
Main Diagnostic Features: Head and breast dusky reddish brown. Back salmon pink and lower half of side metallic yellow.
Size: Maximum total length about 30 cm, commonly to 20 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson, 1842)
English Name: Spanish Flag Snapper
Mandarin Name: 赤笔仔 (Chì bǐ zǐ)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Timun
Local Hokkien: Tee Boon
Main Diagnostic Features: A series of 8 or 9 yellowish to brownish stripes on sides. A distinct black spot at base of pectoral fin.
Size: Maximum total length about 40 cm, commonly to 30 cm.








Scientific Name: Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)
English Name: Blackspot Snapper
Mandarin Name: 火点 (Huǒ diǎn)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Timun Tanda
Main Diagnostic Features: A prominent round, black spot on back below posterior part of spinous portion of dorsal fin.
Size: Maximum total length of about 35 cm, commonly to 20 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790
English Name: Crimson Snapper
Mandarin Name: 红鸡 (Hóng jī)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah, Merah Pucat
Local Hokkien: Ang Sai, Ang Koi
Main Diagnostic Features: Dorsal profile of head sloped and mouth relatively small. Overall body including fins pink or red in colour.
Size: Maximum total length about 60 cm, commonly to 45 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus gibbus (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Humpback Red Snapper, Paddletail
Mandarin Name: 红鸡 (Hóng jī), 紅魚 (Hóng yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah, Jenahak, Merah Barahan
Main Diagnostic Features: Caudal fin distinctly forked with rounded lobes. Soft part of dorsal fin, anal and caudal fins with a narrow white margin.
Size: Maximum total length about 50 cm, commonly to 35 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus johnii  (Bloch, 1792)
English Name: John’s Snapper, Golden Snapper
Mandarin Name: 紅鰽(Hóng qiú), 红皂 (Hóng zào), 红潮 (Hóng cháo)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Jenahak, Ungah
Local Hokkien: Ang Zho
Local Teochew: Ang Zhor
Local Cantonese: Hong Lap
Main Diagnostic Features: Centre of each scale often with a reddish brown spot, giving an overall appearance of series of horizontal lines on side of body. Mostly with a round black spot on back.
Size: Maximum total length about 70 cm, commonly to 50 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus lemniscatus  (Valenciennes, 1828)
English Name: Yellow Streaked Snapper, Dark-tailed Sea Perch
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah, Kunyit, Jenahak Jalur Kuning
Main Diagnostic Features: Body colour olive and without black spot. Fins reddish with darker margin for caudal and dorsal fins.
Size: Maximum total length about 65 cm, commonly to 35 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus lutjanus Bloch, 1790
English Name: Bigeye Snapper
Mandarin Name: 黄笛鲷 (Huáng dí diāo)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kunyit, Remong
Local Hokkien: Kee Hu
Main Diagnostic Features: A broad yellow to brownish stripe from eye to caudal-fin base. A series of yellow horizontal lines on lower half of body. Yellow oblique lines above lateral line. Fins pale yellow to whitish.
Remarks: Often difficult to differentiate the Lutjanus madras and Lutjanus lutjanus. The space between the eye and upper jaw is smaller for Lutjanus lutjanus.
Size: Maximum total length about 30 cm, commonly to 20 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus madras  (Valenciennes, 1831)
English Name: Indian Snapper
Mandarin Name: 前鳞笛鲷 (Qián lín dí diāo)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kunyit, Remong, Kunyit Madras
Local Hokkien: Kee Hu
Main Diagnostic Features: A broad brownish stripe from eye to caudal-fin base. A series of brownish horizontal lines on lower half of body. Brownish oblique lines above lateral line. Fins pale yellow to whitish.
Remarks: Often difficult to differentiate the Lutjanus madras and Lutjanus lutjanus. The space between the eye and upper jaw is smaller for Lutjanus lutjanus.
Size: Maximum total length about 30 cm, commonly to 20 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus malabaricus  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
English Name: Malabar Blood Snapper
Mandarin Name: 红鱼 (Hóng yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah Tanda Hitam, Merah, Merah Mata Hitam
Main Diagnostic Features: Snout profile straight or slightly concave. Large mouth. Back and sides red or red-orange, lighter on lower parts. Fins reddish. Juveniles with a broad, oblique band of brown or black from upper jaw to beginning of dorsal fin, and a prominent black band across caudal peduncle with a pearly white anterior border.
Size: Maximum total length about 100 cm, commonly to 50 cm.








Scientific Name: Lutjanus quinquelineatus  (Bloch, 1790)
English Name: Five-lined Snapper, Blue-banded Sea-perch
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kunyit, Remong, Tanda Jalur, Kunyit Lima Garis
Local Hokkien: Kee Hu
Main Diagnostic Features: A round black spot, about the size of the eye or larger. A series of blue stripes on the side.
Size: Maximum total length about 38 cm, commonly to 30 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus russelli  (Bleeker, 1849)
English Name: Russel’s Snapper
Mandarin Name: 紅鰽痣(Hóng qiú zhì), 红皂记 (Hóng zào jì)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Tanda
Local Hokkien: Ang Zho Kee, Orr Tiam
Local Teochew: Ang Zhor Kee
Main Diagnostic Features: Back and upper side brownish. Lower sides and belly pink to whitish with a silvery sheen. A black spot below anterior rays of soft dorsal fin. A distinct black spot at base of pectoral fin. Juveniles from the western Pacific whitish with four black stripes on sides.
Size: Maximum total length about 45 cm, commonly to 30 cm.








Scientific Name: Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1816)
English Name: Emperor Red Snapper
Mandarin Name: 红鸡 (Hóng jī), 紅魚 (Hóng yú), , 关刀红 (Guān dāo hóng)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Merah Coreng, Merah Boring
Local Hokkien: Ang Hu, Ang Koi
Main Diagnostic Features: Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 15 or 16 soft rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 10 soft rays. Body and fins red or pink. Juveniles with 3 dark red bands that will disappear in adult.
Size: Maximum total length to at least 100 cm, commonly to 60 cm.






Scientific Name: Lutjanus vitta  (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
English Name: Brownstripe Snapper
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kunyit, Remong, Kunyit Remong
Local Hokkien: Kee Hu
Main Diagnostic Features: A dark brown to blackish stripe along middle of side from eye to upper half of caudal peduncle.
Size: Maximum total length about 40 cm, commonly to 25 cm.